His Prophetic mission began in the year 610CE on the 27th day of the month of Rajab, when he first received the divine revelation. Then the Qur’an was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h) progressively according to the circumstances of the time over a period of 23 years.
The Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h) was became martyr on the 28th day of the month of Safar in the 11th year of the Hijrah , 630CE.
Muhammad’s father Abdullah son of Abdul-Muttalib (p.b.u.h) was the best and most pious among the sons of Abdul-Muttalib and his most beloved. Abdullah died while Muhammad(p.b.u.h) was still in his mother’s womb. All that he left behind were five camels and a servant girl named Barakah, also known as Omm Ayman, who was Muhammad’s (p.b.u.h) nanny. Abdullah was a true believer and a monotheist.
After Abdullah’s death, Muhammad’s (p.b.u.h) grandfather, Abdul-Muttalib, became his guardian. Abdul-Muttalib was one of the chieftains of the tribe of Quraysh, and a believer in Allah [in the way of Prophet Abraham (p.b.u.h) , as was Abu Talib, a brother of Abdullah. Abdul-Muttalib always respected and honoured treaties and adopted the finest of morals. He loved the poor and helped pilgrims. He would even feed the wild beasts and the birds of the mountaintops. He would feed people in times of famine and would restrain wrongdoers.
Muhammad’s mother was Aamenah . She was also a believer in Allah.
Then Aamenah sent for Abdul-Muttalib. He came to her and she said:
‘A wondrous boy has been born to you.’
Then she brought baby Muhammad (p.b.u.h) to him. Abdul-Muttalib looked at him then took him and entered the Ka‘bah and prayed to Allah. Then he left the Ka‘bah and returned him to his mother and named him Muhammad (p.b.u.h).
Muhammad (p.b.u.h) was not yet seven years old when his mother died. After his mother’s death, his grandfather Abdul-Muttalib was guardianship of him. Because of his knowledge of the status of the child and his faith in him he treated Muhammad (p.b.u.h) with more care and attention than his other children. A group of the Medlaj Clan came to Mecca and when they saw Muhammad (p.b.u.h) they said to his grandfather:
‘Take good care of him for we have never seen another of his station.’
Abdul-Muttalib said to Abu Talib in his will to heed what they say and take care of him. Muhammad (p.b.u.h) was eight when his grandfather died, and he was taken into the care of his uncle Abu Talib.
Abu Talib, chief of the Bani-Hashim clan within the Quraysh, then became the guardian of Muhammad (p.b.u.h) from his eighth year. Abu Talib went on to protect and serve the Messenger of Allah, defending him and honouring him throughout the testing times of his Prophethood, until the last breath of his life.
Muhammad (p.b.u.h) grew up to become a fine young man. He became known for his excellent manners, and because of the honesty in his conduct and dealings he was referred to as al-Saadiq (The Truthful One) and al-Amin (The Trustworthy One).
As a youngster Muhammad (p.b.u.h) used to accompany his uncle on his business trips to Syria . When the Messenger of Allah reached the age of twelve he journeyed with his uncle Abu Talib as far as Busra. There he was seen by a Christian monk named Georges who recognised him by his description. He took his hand and said: ‘This is the chief of the Worlds, God will send him as a mercy to the Worlds.’ Abu Talib said: ‘How do you know this?’ He said: ‘We find mention of him in our books.’ He asked Abu Talib to take him back fearing for his safety.
As an adult, Muhammad (p.b.u.h) worked as a trader between the cities of Mecca and Damascus , and earned a great reputation in the process. Having heard of the reputation of Muhammad (p.b.u.h), Lady Khadijah (Sa), one of the noblest of the Quraysh, on one occasion commissioned him to take charge of some of her trading business between the two cities. Lady Khadijah sent one of her servants, Maysarah, along with him to keep an eye on him and report back to her. Having seen his performance in the business, and the returns he had produced as well as his honesty, Lady Khadijah put Muhammad (p.b.u.h) in charge of her business. Although she had many proposals of marriage from various dignitaries of the Quraysh, Lady Khadijah declined them all. It is reported that it was Lady Khadijah who, albeit indirectly and discreetly, made the marriage proposal to Muhammad (p.b.u.h).
His only daughter was Fatimah (As), who married Imam Ali (As) son of Abu Talib, and their childerens was Imam Hassan (As) and Imam Hussain (As), Zaynab (As) and Omm Kolthuom (As), and another son who was named Muhsen (As) by the Prophet before his birth. Fatimah (As) was the only one of the siblings to survive the Messenger of Allah prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h).
Imam Ali (As) was born to Abu Talib and his wife Fatimah bint Assad in 600CE. Imam Ali (As) birth was associated with a particularly significant phenomenon. When Fatimah bint Assad was in labour she came to the Ka‘bah pleading to God for help with her labour. It is reported by various narrators and recorded by many chroniclers that as she was engaged in her prayers by the southern wall of the Ka‘bah, the wall split open and she entered the House, where by the wall returned to its normal state. Having observed this extra ordinary phenomenon, people who were present tried to follow her into the House through the opening but did not succeed. They then tried to go inside the House through its door but could not unlock the door. Reports indicate that she was inside the House for three days, and when she left the House with her new born she did so in the same manner as she entered the House.
The Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h) took particular interest in baby Imam Ali (As), and he played a major role in Imam Ali (As) upbringing and education.Imam Ali (As) would be the most ardent supporter of the Prophet throughout the difficult years of the Prophet Muhammad’s (p.b.u.h) mission to convey the divine message and the teachings of Islam to the masses.
Start of His Mission
The Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h) used to spend much time in prayer and worship of the one God. This he used to do in a cave, known as Hira, in the al-Noor mountain near the city of Mecca .
In 610CE, at the age of forty, Muhammad (p.b.u.h) received the first of the divine revelations when he was engaged in devotion and prayer inside the cave of Hira :
In the name of Allah the Merciful, the Compassionate;
Read , in the name of thy Lord who created,
Created man from a clot,
Read and thy lord is the most noble,
Who taught by pen,
Taught man what he knew not . . . 
The Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h) conveyed the news and the Message to Imam Ali (As) and Lady Khadijah . Imam Ali (As) and Lady Khadijah both embraced the new revelation instantly and without any hesitation.
Khadijah was thus the first woman to believe in Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h) and the first woman to pray with him. She supported him wholeheartedly and spent all her wealth in the way of Allah. She was the first woman that the Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h) married and he married no other during her lifetime. She was immensely loyal to the Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h).
The Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h) begins to invite individuals to the new revelation but in secret. There were very few supporters and believers. When the Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h) used to perform a congregational prayer, those who were with him were Lady Khadijah and Imam Ali (As). This low-key approach continued for three years.
Afterwards, on instructions from the Almighty, the Prophet’s invitation to Islam started to became more and more public. The Almighty instructs His messenger to begin with his clan, And warn your nearest kinsmen . For this purpose the Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h) prepared a banquet and invited the elders and chiefs of the Bani-Hashim, who totalled forty. After they were served with a good feast, the Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h) invited them to Islam, called upon them to support him in his mission, and promised them that whoever does so would be appointed as his successor, but none took up the offer dismissing the Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h) and his mission as nonsense, with the sole exception of Imam Ali (As). After announcing this 3 times Muhammad (pbuh) declared that ‘Ali (as) will be his deputy to his mission and will be his successor after him. People thought it as a joke that a 13 year old boy was to be a deputy of this prophetic mission. Ridiculing the whole thing, they turned to Abu Talib saying, “Your son will be your commander, you should obey him!” Nevertheless the mission continues unabated albeit with very few supporters.
 The occasion of the Hijrah (literally migration, and by extension the migration of the Prophet Muhammad from Mecca to Medina to thwart those from the Quraysh who had plotted to assassinate him) marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar. The Hijrah took place around 622CE.
 The Ka‘bah is a cubical structure symbolising the House of God that was built by the Prophet Adam on instructions from the Almighty God in an uninhabited valley, which in turn brought about the creation of the holy city of Mecca around it.
 The Quraysh is a collection of clans and tribes all of whom are blood related.
 The Holy Qur’an, The Clot (96): 1-5
 The Holy Qur’an: Joseph (12): 91.